exp and expt perform exponentiation.
exp returns e raised to the power number,
where e is the base of the natural logarithms.
exp has no branch cut.
expt returns base-number
raised to the power power-number.
If the base-number is a rational
and power-number is
the calculation is exact and the result will be of type rational;
otherwise a floating-point approximation might result.
For expt of a complex rational to an integer power,
the calculation must be exact and the result is
of type (or rational (complex rational)).
The result of expt can be a complex,
even when neither argument is a complex,
if base-number is negative and power-number
is not an integer.
The result is always the principal complex value.
For example, (expt -8 1/3) is not permitted to return -2,
even though -2 is one of the cube roots of -8.
The principal cube root is a complex
approximately equal to #C(1.0 1.73205), not -2.
expt is defined
as bx = ex log b .
This defines the principal values precisely. The range of
expt is the entire complex plane. Regarded
as a function of x, with b fixed, there is no branch cut.
Regarded as a function of b, with x fixed, there is in general
a branch cut along the negative real axis, continuous with quadrant II.
The domain excludes the origin.
By definition, 00=1. If b=0 and the real part of x is strictly
bx=0. For all other values of x, 0x
is an error.
When power-number is an integer 0,
then the result is always the value one in the type
even if the base-number is zero (of any type). That is:
(expt x 0) ==(coerce 1 (type-of x))
If power-number is a zero of any other type,
then the result is also the value one, in the type of the arguments
after the application of the contagion rules in Section 18.104.22.168 Contagion in Numeric Operations,
with one exception:
the consequences are undefined if base-number is zero when power-number
is zero and not of type integer.