ANSI Common Lisp 18 Hash Tables 18.1 Hash Table Concepts
18.1.1 Hash-Table Operations
The next figure lists some defined names that are applicable
to hash tables. The following rules apply to hash tables.
A hash table can only associate one value with a given
key. If an attempt is made to add a second value for a given key,
the second value will replace the first.
Thus, adding a value to a hash table is a destructive operation;
the hash table is modified.
There are four kinds of hash tables:
those whose keys are compared with eq,
those whose keys are compared with eql,
those whose keys are compared with equal, and
those whose keys are compared with equalp.
Hash tables are created by make-hash-table.
gethash is used to look up a key and find the associated value.
New entries are added to hash tables using setf with gethash.
remhash is used to remove an entry.
(setq a (make-hash-table)) #<HASH-TABLE EQL 0/120 32536573>
(setf (gethash 'color a) 'brown) BROWN
(setf (gethash 'name a) 'fred) FRED
(gethash 'color a) BROWN, true
(gethash 'name a) FRED, true
(gethash 'pointy a) NIL, false
In this example, the symbols color and name are being used as
keys, and the symbols brown and fred are being used as the
associated values. The hash table
has two items in it, one of which
associates from color to brown, and the other of which
associates from name to fred.
A key or a value may be any object.
The existence of an entry in the hash table can be determined
from the secondary value returned by gethash.
Hash-table defined names