|Allegro CL version 8.1|
Unrevised from 8.0 to 8.1. Minimal update since 8.1 release.
This document contains the following sections:1.0 Allegro CL Modern Mode
Allegro CL provides various options for starting Lisp, including a choice between "Modern" and "ANSI" mode Lisps. See Allegro CL Executables in startup.htm for details of the startup options.
This document describes the issues of case sensitivity and modern and ANSI modes.
The Modern/ANSI mode choice refers to the Lisp image's case mode. As described elsewhere in this document, a case mode is a combination of two things: (a) the Lisp symbol reader's default behavior, and (b) which case (upper case or lower case) is used to store pre-defined Lisp symbols which name functions, variables, classes, etc. The case mode being used has a big effect on how source files and data files are read and how their data may be represented internally or output by Lisp. Thus, it is important to understand how the case mode choice affects one's Lisp programming. But first, a couple of comments about compatibility.
The ANSI Common Lisp specification states that all pre-defined Common Lisp functions, variables, classes, etc. are represented as symbols whose names are stored in all upper case. Thus, for example, suppose you wish to evaluate the following Lisp source expression:
(member 'cat '(dog cat mouse))
When Lisp reads this expression, either by loading a source file, or from a user typing it to a Lisp Listener, the symbol reader internally converts all symbol names to their upper case equivalents. (As an aside, please note that case of some non-English letters can actually depend on a user's locale. Thus, it is possible to have the Lisp reader's behavior depend on the environment in which it is being run. Other than mentioning it here, we disregard this problem in the rest of this document.)
Thus, after being read by Lisp, the form above is equivalent to the following:
(MEMBER 'CAT '(DOG CAT MOUSE))
When Lisp evaluates this expression, it finds that the first element,
MEMBER, matches the pre-defined Lisp symbol,
MEMBER, whose function when applied to the
arguments as described, returns the following:
As can be seen by the examples below, the ANSI Lisp symbol reader is case-insensitive. In other words, each of the following expressions, when read in ANSI mode, returns the same result:
(Member 'cat '(dog cAT mOUSE)) RETURNS (CAT MOUSE) (MEMBER 'CAT '(Dog Cat Mouse)) RETURNS (CAT MOUSE) (mEmBEr 'Cat '(dog CAT mouse)) RETURNS (CAT MOUSE) (member 'CAT '(dog cat mouse)) RETURNS (CAT MOUSE) (MEMBER 'CAT '(DOG CAT MOUSE)) RETURNS (CAT MOUSE) ;; and so on....
One of the features of such a case-insensitive reader is that it allows programmers to write source code using mixed case knowing that Lisp will canonicalize (and thus ignore the case variants of) the symbol names. Some programmers may choose to adopt a coding style where they indicate predefined Lisp symbols in upper case:
(DEFUN my-function (arg1 &OPTIONAL arg2) (WHEN (my-predicate arg1 arg2) (PRINT "Success")))
An alternate style might be simply to capitalize all symbols:
(Defun My-Function (Arg1 &Optional Arg2) (When (My-Predicate Arg1 Arg2) (Print "Success")))
One can have many different such case-variant styles even within a single file. Whether it is good or not to have such styles is another matter. However, as far as Lisp is concerned, all (unescaped) symbols are converted to upper case as they are read.
As long as Lisp programs only require that symbol names be in upper case, there would be no problem using the default ANSI specified Lisp reader. However, difficulties occur when interfacing to non-Lisp programming systems which are increasingly using lower case case-sensitive identifiers. The case-insensitive nature of the Common Lisp symbol reader creates hurdles for programmers wishing to interface to such systems.
For example, if a user wants to establish a foreign function
associated with the Microsoft Windows API function
CreateDIBitmap() (which is used to Create a
Device Independent Bitmap), the default Lisp
reader action is to turn the name into upper case. Thus, one may have
source code which reads as follows:
(defun call-windows () (CreateDIBitmap ...))
If, however, an error occurs during the execution of this call, the Lisp stack backtrace displayed by the debugger is hard to read due to missing word boundary information in the function's name:
Processing XML data is another example which demonstrates Lisp's power as well as the ANSI-mode hurdle with case-sensitive data. Suppose we have employee information in XML format as shown in the following fragment:
<Employee OfficePhone="510-452-2000" SSNumber="111-22-3333" HomePhone="510-555-2222"> Franz Liszt <IdPhoto href="liszt.jpg"/> </Employee>
A natural way to represent such elements in Lisp is with keyword-style lists, and this is what Franz' open-source xml-parser returns. XML is intrinsically case sensitive, and the DTD (Document Type Definition) mandates the case of all tag and attribute names. Thus, the above expression can be represented with case-preserving tags, but escapes are needed when the list is printed in ANSI-mode:
((|Employee| |OfficePhone| "510-452-2000" |SSNumber| "111-22-3333" |HomePhone| "510-555-2222") "Franz Liszt" ((|IdPhoto| |href| "liszt.jpg")))
A reason to choose symbols for tags is that we can then use powerful Lisp tools such as destructuring-bind to further process the parsed structure. Element attributes in XML consist of key/value pairs, but the attributes attached to any node are unordered, and it can be tedious to extract some set of attributes from a node. This pattern is so very similar to Lisp keywords that exploiting Lisp lambda-list binding is an obvious mechanism for extracting and collecting attributes and their values. In ANSI mode, however, Lisp code which deals with case-sensitive symbol tags needs a lot of escaping, making the code both hard to read and hard to write.
;; An XML phone directory processor (case (car element) ((|CompanyOfficer| |Manager| |Employee| |Consultant|) (destructuring-bind ((tag &key ((|OfficePhone| office-phone)) ((|HomePhone| home-phone)) ((|SSNumber| ss-number)) &allow-other-keys) &rest content) element (my-formatted-output content tag office-phone home-phone ss-number) ...)) (|Customer| ...) ...)
The above code works in either ANSI mode or Modern mode Lisp, but we'll see below how this code can be rewritten more felicitously in Modern mode.
Many Lisp programmers have chosen to avoid the symbol case-insensitivity problem by using strings instead of symbols to represent externally named objects. Strings are always read with their case preserved. Unfortunately, by using strings, a Lisp programmer gives up using Lisp variables for case-sensitive external identifiers. Furthermore, one gives up other features unique to symbols such as fast eq comparisons or being able to store the identifiers in separate package name spaces.
Note that ANSI Common Lisp does provide some support for case mode choice, using readtable-case and various global variables. See Section 3.0 readtable-case for details.
Modern programming environments almost universally use case sensitive lower case identifiers. Modern mode in Lisp thus eases interfacing to such environments. It also simplifies the Lisp reader.
As opposed to ANSI Mode, symbols in Modern mode are simply treated as
WYSIWYG (What You See Is
What You Get). In other words, symbols are simply
read with case preserved. Thus, following up on an example above, the
(CreateDIBitmap ...) shows up as
(CreateDIBitmap ...) when displayed in a
stack backtrace, or trace output, etc. Further examples show how in a
Modern mode Lisp session, one gets straightforward results:
(quote MyDogSpot) RETURNS MyDogSpot (symbol-name 'MyDogSpot) RETURNS "MyDogSpot"
Thus, in Modern mode, one is easily able to use symbols as names for externally defined case-sensitive identifiers (e.g., foreign functions).
As a further example, the Lisp / XML fragment from above can be greatly simplified by using unescaped symbols to represent XML tags, and by using the corresponding case-sensitive variable names directly in Lisp code:
;; An XML phone directory processor (case (car element) ((CompanyOfficer Manager Employee Consultant) (with-xml-element (tag (OfficePhone HomePhone SSNumber) &rest content) element (my-formatted-output content tag OfficePhone HomePhone SSNumber))) (Customer ...) ...)
macro is defined as follows:
(defmacro with-xml-element ((tag (&rest attributes) &rest contents) element &body body) `(destructuring-bind ((,tag &key ,@(mapcar #'(lambda (x) (list (list x x))) attributes) &allow-other-keys) ,@contents) ,element ,@body))
As for readtable-case, there
is little need for it at all in Modern mode. In fact, the original
implementation of Modern mode, which predates readtable-case and even the full ANSI Common
Lisp specification itself by several years, ignored readtable-case settings because ignoring them
allowed greater ease moving between ANSI mode and Modern mode by
allowing the same readtable-case settings in both modes. Responding
to user feedback, however, Franz Inc. reconsidered that
decision. Allegro CL now provides full readtable-case functionality in Modern mode. The
default readtable-case setting
for Modern mode is
Franz Inc. is committed to providing fully ANSI-compliant Common Lisp development and runtime environments. With each release, Franz Inc. includes a fully supported ANSI-compliant Common Lisp executable. As Franz Inc. introduces new features that extend the ANSI Common Lisp specification, priority is given to ensure not only that ANSI-compliant Common Lisp code will run, but also that such new features are as backwards compatible as possible with prior Franz Inc. releases.
Modern mode is provided separately from the backwards compatible ANSI executable(s) because Modern mode directly contradicts the ANSI specification in two very specific user-visible ways which can break ANSI-compliant Common Lisp programs. If you have Allegro CL installed, you may find, for example, files named alisp.dxl and mlisp.dxl. These correspond to the base lisp images for ANSI mode and Modern mode respectively. (Please see startup.htm for information on starting Allegro CL images.) Windows users may find "ANSI" and "Modern" as Allegro CL start menu items. Other than the case mode, however, the images are equivalent. Users unable to switch to Modern mode can simply stick to using the ANSI mode versions.
In order to increase Common Lisp's effectiveness with modern day, externally accessible, case-sensitive programming environments, Franz Inc. is bringing its Modern mode to the fore as a way to encourage Lisp users and developers to consider new ways of thinking about how Lisp symbols can be used. In Modern mode, Lisp symbols can easily be used not only for Lisp function/variable/object names, but also for external names such as classes/functions in Java/C++, or data elements in XML or CORBA. Note that it is generally easy to write and maintain Lisp code which runs in either ANSI or Modern mode.
There are two parameters that determine the reader's actions:
case preference and case sensitivity. The
preferred case is either upper or lower, and refers to
the case of the characters in the print names of all of the standard
symbols, such as
sensitivity can be either sensitive or insensitive to
case. Case-sensitive means that the Lisp reader does not modify the
case of any characters it reads. Case-insensitive means that
characters that are not of the preferred case are converted to the
Thus, there are four possible values for the combination of case preference and case sensitivity. However, only three are supported in Allegro CL.
The functions set-case-mode and convert-mixed-case-symbols, and two variables
*ignore-package-name-case* are provided for
controlling and sensing case modes.
So, Allegro Common Lisp can operate in three different case modes, two of which, modern (case-sensitive lower) and ANSI (case-insensitive upper) are the more important and treated in detail in this document.
The ANSI specification does, in fact, address limited case-sensitivity by providing readtable-case functionality. The function readtable-case accesses (and with setf sets) the readtable-case of a readtable object. Franz Inc. fully supports this readtable-case functionality in both ANSI and Modern modes.
While the ANSI readtable-case solution may be suitable for programmers wishing to use ANSI mode yet still requiring a case-sensitive reader, this functionality is somewhat counterintuitive due to ANSI limitations. Specifically, the only readtable-case setting which can effectively be used that doesn't require all source code to be converted to upper case and which still provides case-sensitivity is the :invert setting. The way this setting works is by having the Lisp symbol reader turn symbol names with all lower case characters into all upper case and vice versa.
For those not already aware of the interaction between
*print-case* and the
:invert readtable-case, ANSI mode Common Lisp can
create some surprising results. For example, a symbol whose name is
"ZEBRA" is printed in all lower case even when
*print-case* is specified to be
:upcase. Also, the symbol whose name is "Zebra" is
printed as 'Zebra' (i.e., capitalized) even if
*print-case* is either
these results are understandable, given how the reader and printer
must operate with the ANSI specified case mode, they are not
intuitive. On the other hand, the Allegro CL case modes, the Modern
mode in particular, provide a direct way of dealing with reading and
printing case-sensitive symbols.
For each case mode, the initial case settings for readtable-case are summarized in the following table:
|mode||initial symbol-name storage||readtables cases|
A call to set-case-mode
resets to the corresponding value in the table above the
readtable-case of the Lisp standard readtable as well as all existing
readtables except those whose readtable-case has been explicitly set.
In other words, the default situation is that a readtable's
:default. Specifically, for any
readtable rt, evaluating
(setf (readtable-case rt) :default)
sets rt's readtable-case to the value according to the current case mode as specified by the above table. Furthermore, unless the rt's readtable-case is later set to a value other than :default, rt's readtable-case is automatically adjusted by future calls to set-case-mode.
In general, Common Lisp programs which don't depend on case-sensitivity, and which are written using lower case for pre-defined Lisp names will work either in Modern mode or in ANSI mode. Code which works in both ANSI mode and Modern mode is called case-portable code.
There are a few areas that programmers must look for when developing code that is to be case-portable, that is compatible between both Modern and ANSI modes (and portable to other conforming Common Lisp implementations).
Specifically, places where literal upper case strings are used as string designators can portably be replaced by symbols. For example, the following form works only in ANSI mode:
If the string designator is changed to be a symbol, then the form will work in both ANSI and Modern modes (and is portable to other conforming Common Lisp implementations):
Some functions may deal with symbol-names directly in other ways. Again, these can also be made compatible between ANSI and Modern modes by using symbols (often keywords) as string designators. For example, the following form works only in ANSI mode:
(defun my-new-symbol (arg) (intern (concatenate 'string "MY-NEW-SYMBOL-" (format nil "~a" arg))))
If written as follows, however, the function works exactly the same way in ANSI mode, but also can be used in Modern mode:
(defun my-new-symbol (arg) (intern (concatenate 'string (symbol-name :my-new-symbol-) (format nil "~a" arg))))
Packages are named by strings and are looked up in a case sensitive
manner. In Modern mode the standard package names are all in lower
case and in ANSI mode they are in upper case. Thus a good way to
refer to package is not by a string e.g. "common-lisp-user"
but by a symbol such as
#:common-lisp-user. Putting the symbol in the keyword
package or using an uninterned-symbol keeps from cluttering the
current package (and maybe causing symbol clashes).
Symbols can be used nearly everywhere a package name is needed. The functions that look for package names use the symbol-name of a symbol passed as an argument. By doing
you end up calling in-package with "ole" in Modern mode or "OLE" in ANSI mode, and thus the package is found regardless of the mode.
A global solution to matching package names is to set the variable
*ignore-package-name-case*. When the value of
that variable is true, package name to package lookup is done in a
case insensitive manner.
In package definitions you also want to use symbols in place of strings, as in:
(defpackage :foreign-functions (:nicknames :ff) (:use :common-lisp :excl) (:export #:def-foreign-call #:def-foreign-type #:defun-foreign-callable #:def-foreign-variable ))
The most common non-compatible form we come across looks like this
(defun constructor (struct) (intern (format nil "MAKE-~a" struct)))
This assumes that this code will run in ANSI mode. Writing it as follows allows the case of the make- symbol and the struct argument to be determined by the case of the symbols' symbol-names, which will be correct for the case mode:
(defun constructor (struct) (intern (format nil "~a~a" (symbol-name :make-) (string struct))))
When reading and testing against symbol names you'll want the code to
work regardless of the case of the print names. This can be
accomplished by using case-insensitive predicates (such as equalp). Another possibility is to use
(string :foo) rather than "foo" or
"FOO" so that the correct string for the current case mode
is used at runtime.
Generally ANSI mode code can be made compatible by looking for and fixing the few items we've mentioned above. However you may encounter code written in a style such as this:
(DeFun Foo (x y) (Cond ((PlusP x) (Sqrt y)) (t y)))
The author of this code is taking advantage of the fact that in
ANSI mode the case of symbols in the source code doesn't matter. In
order to port this to Modern mode you could go through and lowercase
every symbol naming an official Lisp form. The author of the code is
unlikely to want the code back after such a transformation, as he must
see some value to his style of capitalization. A way to make this code
readable into Modern mode Lisp without modifying it is to switch the Lisp
:case-insensitive-lower mode. In this mode, the
strange symbol names will be downcased. After reading in this file the
mode can be switched back to
Note that when you switch to
:case-insensitive-lower mode the value of
*print-case* determines how
symbols will be printed. The initial value of
unless you change
*print-case* you'll find that when you switch to
:case-insensitive-lower, symbols will start
printing in upper case even though their print names are in lower
case. If this annoys you, you can set
Copyright (c) 1998-2009, Franz Inc. Oakland, CA., USA. All rights reserved.
Documentation for Allegro CL version 8.1. This page was not revised from the 8.0 page.
|Allegro CL version 8.1|
Unrevised from 8.0 to 8.1. Minimal update since 8.1 release.