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  ANSI Common Lisp   26 Glossary   26.1 Glossary

L

lambda combination:
n. Trad.  a lambda form.

lambda expression:
n.  a list which can be used in place of a function name in certain contexts to denote a function by directly describing its behavior rather than indirectly by referring to the name of an established function; its name derives from the fact that its first element is the symbol lambda. See lambda.

lambda form:
n.  a form that is a list and that has a first element which is a lambda expression representing a function to be called on arguments which are the result of evaluating subsequent elements of the lambda form.

lambda list:
n.  a list that specifies a set of parameters (sometimes called lambda variables) and a protocol for receiving values for those parameters; that is, an ordinary lambda list, an extended lambda list, or a modified lambda list.

lambda list keyword:
n.  a symbol whose name begins with ampersand and that is specially recognized in a lambda list. Note that no standardized lambda list keyword is in the keyword package.

lambda variable:
n.  a formal parameter, used to emphasize the variable's relation to the lambda list that established it.

leaf:
n.  1. an atom in a tree1. 2. a terminal node of a tree2.

leap seconds:
n.  additional one-second intervals of time that are occasionally inserted into the true calendar by official timekeepers as a correction similar to "leap years." All Common Lisp time representations ignore leap seconds; every day is assumed to be exactly 86400 seconds long.

left-parenthesis:
n.  the standard character "(", that is variously called "left parenthesis" or "open parenthesis" See Figure 2.1.3 Standard Characters.

length:
n. (of a sequence) the number of elements in the sequence. (Note that if the sequence is a vector with a fill pointer, its length is the same as the fill pointer even though the total allocated size of the vector might be larger.)

lexical binding:
n.  a binding in a lexical environment.

lexical closure:
n.  a function that, when invoked on arguments, executes the body of a lambda expression in the lexical environment that was captured at the time of the creation of the lexical closure, augmented by bindings of the function's parameters to the corresponding arguments.

lexical environment:
n.  that part of the environment that contains bindings whose names have lexical scope. A lexical environment contains, among other things: ordinary bindings of variable names to values, lexically established bindings of function names to functions, macros, symbol macros, blocks, tags, and local declarations (see declare).

lexical scope:
n.  scope that is limited to a spatial or textual region within the establishing form. The names of parameters to a function normally are lexically scoped.

lexical variable:
n.  a variable the binding for which is in the lexical environment.

Lisp image:
n.  a running instantiation of a Common Lisp implementation. A Lisp image is characterized by a single address space in which any object can directly refer to any another in conformance with this specification, and by a single, common, global environment. (External operating systems sometimes call this a "core image," "fork," "incarnation," "job," or "process." Note however, that the issue of a "process" in such an operating system is technically orthogonal to the issue of a Lisp image being defined here. Depending on the operating system, a single "process" might have multiple Lisp images, and multiple "processes" might reside in a single Lisp image. Hence, it is the idea of a fully shared address space for direct reference among all objects which is the defining characteristic. Note, too, that two "processes" which have a communication area that permits the sharing of some but not all objects are considered to be distinct Lisp images.)

Lisp printer:
n. Trad.  the procedure that prints the character representation of an object onto a stream. (This procedure is implemented by the function write.)

Lisp read-eval-print loop:
n. Trad.  an endless loop that reads2 a form, evaluates it, and prints (i.e., writes2) the results. In many implementations, the default mode of interaction with Common Lisp during program development is through such a loop.

Lisp reader:
n. Trad.  the procedure that parses character representations of objects from a stream, producing objects. (This procedure is implemented by the function read.)

list:
n.  1. a chain of conses in which the car of each cons is an element of the list, and the cdr of each cons is either the next link in the chain or a terminating atom. See also proper list, dotted list, or circular list. 2. the type that is the union of null and cons.

list designator:
n.  a designator for a list of objects; that is, an object that denotes a list and that is one of: a non-nil atom (denoting a singleton list whose element is that non-nil atom) or a proper list (denoting itself).

list structure:
n. (of a list) the set of conses that make up the list. Note that while the car1b component of each such cons is part of the list structure, the objects that are elements of the list (i.e., the objects that are the cars2 of each cons in the list) are not themselves part of its list structure, even if they are conses, except in the (circular2) case where the list actually contains one of its tails as an element. (The list structure of a list is sometimes redundantly referred to as its "top-level list structure" in order to emphasize that any conses that are elements of the list are not involved.)

literal:
adj. (of an object) referenced directly in a program rather than being computed by the program; that is, appearing as data in a quote form, or, if the object is a self-evaluating object, appearing as unquoted data. In the form (cons "one" '("two")), the expressions "one", ("two"), and "two" are literal objects.

load:
v.t. (a file) to cause the code contained in the file to be executed. See the function load.

load time:
n.  the duration of time that the loader is loading compiled code.

load time value:
n.  an object referred to in code by a load-time-value form. The value of such a form is some specific object which can only be computed in the run-time environment. In the case of file compilation, the value is computed once as part of the process of loading the compiled file, and not again. See the special operator load-time-value.

loader:
n.  a facility that is part of Lisp and that loads a file. See the function load.

local declaration:
n.  an expression which may appear only in specially designated positions of certain forms, and which provides information about the code contained within the containing form; that is, a declare expression.

local precedence order:
n. (of a class) a list consisting of the class followed by its direct superclasses in the order mentioned in the defining form for the class.

local slot:
n. (of a class) a slot accessible in only one instance, namely the instance in which the slot is allocated.

logical block:
n.  a conceptual grouping of related output used by the pretty printer. See the macro pprint-logical-block and Section 22.2.1.1 Dynamic Control of the Arrangement of Output.

logical host:
n.  an object of implementation-dependent nature that is used as the representation of a "host" in a logical pathname, and that has an associated set of translation rules for converting logical pathnames belonging to that host into physical pathnames. See Section 19.3 Logical Pathnames.

logical host designator:
n.  a designator for a logical host; that is, an object that denotes a logical host and that is one of: a string (denoting the logical host that it names), or a logical host (denoting itself). (Note that because the representation of a logical host is implementation-dependent, it is possible that an implementation might represent a logical host as the string that names it.)

logical pathname:
n.  an object of type logical-pathname.

long float:
n.  an object of type long-float.

loop keyword:
n. Trad.  a symbol that is a specially recognized part of the syntax of an extended loop form. Such symbols are recognized by their name (using string=), not by their identity; as such, they may be in any package. A loop keyword is not a keyword.

lowercase:
adj. (of a character) being among standard characters corresponding to the small letters a through z, or being some other implementation-defined character that is defined by the implementation to be lowercase. See Section 13.1.4.3 Characters With Case.


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