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  ANSI Common Lisp   26 Glossary   26.1 Glossary

C

cadr:
[ 'ka'dEr ], n. (of an object) the car of the cdr of that object.

call:
v.t., n.  1. v.t. (a function with arguments) to cause the code represented by that function to be executed in an environment where bindings for the values of its parameters have been established based on the arguments. Calling the function + with the arguments 5 and 1 yields a value of 6. 2. n. a situation in which a function is called.

captured initialization form:
n.  an initialization form along with the lexical environment in which the form that defined the initialization form was evaluated. Each newly added shared slot is set to the result of evaluating the captured initialization form for the slot that was specified in the defclass form for the new class.

car:
n.  1. a. (of a cons) the component of a cons corresponding to the first argument to cons; the other component is the cdr. The function rplaca modifies the car of a cons. b. (of a list) the first element of the list, or nil if the list is the empty list. 2. the object that is held in the car1. The function car returns the car of a cons.

case:
n. (of a character) the property of being either uppercase or lowercase. Not all characters have case. The characters #\A and #\a have case, but the character #\$ has no case. See Section 13.1.4.3 Characters With Case and the function both-case-p.

case sensitivity mode:
n.  one of the symbols :upcase, :downcase, :preserve, or :invert.

catch:
n.  an exit point which is established by a catch form within the dynamic scope of its body, which is named by a catch tag, and to which control and values may be thrown.

catch tag:
n.  an object which names an active catch. (If more than one catch is active with the same catch tag, it is only possible to throw to the innermost such catch because the outer one is shadowed2.)

cddr:
[ 'küdE'dEr ] or [ 'kE'düdEr ], n.  (of an object) the cdr of the cdr of that object.

cdr:
[ 'kü'dEr ], n.  1. a. (of a cons) the component of a cons corresponding to the second argument to cons; the other component is the car. The function rplacd modifies the cdr of a cons. b. (of a list L1) either the list L2 that contains the elements of L1 that follow after the first, or else nil if L1 is the empty list. 2. the object that is held in the cdr1. The function cdr returns the cdr of a cons.

cell:
n. Trad. (of an object) a conceptual slot of that object. The dynamic variable and global function bindings of a symbol are sometimes referred to as its value cell and function cell, respectively.

character:
n., adj.  1. n. an object of type character; that is, an object that represents a unitary token in an aggregate quantity of text; see Section 13.1 Character Concepts. 2. adj.  a. (of a stream) having an element type that is a subtype of type character. The most fundamental operation on a character input stream is read-char and on a character output stream is write-char. See binary. b. (of a file) having been created by opening a character stream. (It is implementation-dependent whether this is an inspectable aspect of the file, or whether any given binary file can be treated as a character file.)

character code:
n.  1. one of possibly several attributes of a character. 2. a non-negative integer less than the value of char-code-limit that is suitable for use as a character code1.

character designator:
n.  a designator for a character; that is, an object that denotes a character and that is one of: a designator for a string of length one (denoting the character that is its only element), or a character (denoting itself).

circular:
adj.  1. (of a list) a circular list. 2. (of an arbitrary object) having a component, element, constituent2, or subexpression (as appropriate to the context) that is the object itself.

circular list:
n.  a chain of conses that has no termination because some cons in the chain is the cdr of a later cons.

class:
n.  1. an object that uniquely determines the structure and behavior of a set of other objects called its direct instances, that contributes structure and behavior to a set of other objects called its indirect instances, and that acts as a type specifier for a set of objects called its generalized instances. The class integer is a subclass of the class number. (Note that the phrase "the class foo" is often substituted for the more precise phrase "the class named foo" - in both cases, a class object (not a symbol) is denoted.) 2. (of an object) the uniquely determined class of which the object is a direct instance. See the function class-of. The class of the object returned by gensym is symbol. (Note that with this usage a phrase such as "its class is foo" is often substituted for the more precise phrase "its class is the class named foo" - in both cases, a class object (not a symbol) is denoted.)

class designator:
n.  a designator for a class; that is, an object that denotes a class and that is one of: a symbol (denoting the class named by that symbol; see the function find-class) or a class (denoting itself).

class precedence list:
n.  a unique total ordering on a class and its superclasses that is consistent with the local precedence orders for the class and its superclasses. For detailed information, see Section 4.3.5 Determining the Class Precedence List.

close:
v.t. (a stream) to terminate usage of the stream as a source or sink of data, permitting the implementation to reclaim its internal data structures, and to free any external resources which might have been locked by the stream when it was opened.

closed:
adj. (of a stream) having been closed (see close). Some (but not all) operations that are valid on open streams are not valid on closed streams. See Section 20.1.2 File Operations on Open and Closed Streams.

closure:
n.  a lexical closure.

coalesce:
v.t. (literal objects that are similar) to consolidate the identity of those objects, such that they become the same object. See Section 3.2.1 Compiler Terminology.

code:
n.  1. Trad.  any representation of actions to be performed, whether conceptual or as an actual object, such as forms, lambda expressions, objects of type function, text in a source file, or instruction sequences in a compiled file. This is a generic term; the specific nature of the representation depends on its context. 2. (of a character) a character code.

coerce:
v.t. (an object to a type) to produce an object from the given object, without modifying that object, by following some set of coercion rules that must be specifically stated for any context in which this term is used. The resulting object is necessarily of the indicated type, except when that type is a subtype of type complex; in that case, if a complex rational with an imaginary part of zero would result, the result is a rational rather than a complex - see Section 12.1.5.3 Rule of Canonical Representation for Complex Rationals.

colon:
n.  the standard character that is called "colon" (:). See Figure 2.1.3 Standard Characters.

comma:
n.  the standard character that is called "comma" (,). See Figure 2.1.3 Standard Characters.

compilation:
n.  the process of compiling code by the compiler.

compilation environment:
n.  1. An environment that represents information known by the compiler about a form that is being compiled. See Section 3.2.1 Compiler Terminology. 2. An object that represents the compilation environment1 and that is used as a second argument to a macro function (which supplies a value for any &environment parameter in the macro function's definition).

compilation unit:
n.  an interval during which a single unit of compilation is occurring. See the macro with-compilation-unit.

compile:
v.t.  1. (code) to perform semantic preprocessing of the code, usually optimizing one or more qualities of the code, such as run-time speed of execution or run-time storage usage. The minimum semantic requirements of compilation are that it must remove all macro calls and arrange for all load time values to be resolved prior to run time. 2. (a function) to produce a new object of type compiled-function which represents the result of compiling the code represented by the function. See the function compile. 3. (a source file) to produce a compiled file from a source file. See the function compile-file.

compile time:
n.  the duration of time that the compiler is processing source code.

compile-time definition:
n.  a definition in the compilation environment.

compiled code:
n.  1. compiled functions. 2. code that represents compiled functions, such as the contents of a compiled file.

compiled file:
n.  a file which represents the results of compiling the forms which appeared in a corresponding source file, and which can be loaded. See the function compile-file.

compiled function:
n.  an object of type compiled-function, which is a function that has been compiled, which contains no references to macros that must be expanded at run time, and which contains no unresolved references to load time values.

compiler:
n.  a facility that is part of Lisp and that translates code into an implementation-dependent form that might be represented or executed efficiently. The functions compile and compile-file permit programs to invoke the compiler.

compiler macro:
n.  an auxiliary macro definition for a globally defined function or macro which might or might not be called by any given conforming implementation and which must preserve the semantics of the globally defined function or macro but which might perform some additional optimizations. (Unlike a macro, a compiler macro does not extend the syntax of Common Lisp; rather, it provides an alternate implementation strategy for some existing syntax or functionality.)

compiler macro expansion:
n.  1. the process of translating a form into another form by a compiler macro. 2. the form resulting from this process.

compiler macro form:
n.  a function form or macro form whose operator has a definition as a compiler macro, or a funcall form whose first argument is a function form whose argument is the name of a function that has a definition as a compiler macro.

compiler macro function:
n.  a function of two arguments, a form and an environment, that implements compiler macro expansion by producing either a form to be used in place of the original argument form or else nil, indicating that the original form should not be replaced. See Section 3.2.2.1 Compiler Macros.

complex:
n.  an object of type complex.

complex float:
n.  an object of type complex which has a complex part type that is a subtype of float. A complex float is a complex, but it is not a float.

complex part type:
n. (of a complex) 1. the type which is used to represent both the real part and the imaginary part of the complex. 2. the actual complex part type of the complex. 3. the expressed complex part type of the complex.

complex rational:
n.  an object of type complex which has a complex part type that is a subtype of rational. A complex rational is a complex, but it is not a rational. No complex rational has an imaginary part of zero because such a number is always represented by Common Lisp as an object of type rational; see Section 12.1.5.3 Rule of Canonical Representation for Complex Rationals.

complex single float:
n.  an object of type complex which has a complex part type that is a subtype of single-float. A complex single float is a complex, but it is not a single float.

composite stream:
n.  a stream that is composed of one or more other streams. make-synonym-stream creates a composite stream.

compound form:
n.  a non-empty list which is a form: a special form, a lambda form, a macro form, or a function form.

compound type specifier:
n.  a type specifier that is a cons; i.e., a type specifier that is not an atomic type specifier. (vector single-float) is a compound type specifier.

concatenated stream:
n.  an input stream of type concatenated-stream.

condition:
n.  1. an object which represents a situation - usually, but not necessarily, during signaling. 2. an object of type condition.

condition designator:
n.  one or more objects that, taken together, denote either an existing condition object or a condition object to be implicitly created. For details, see Section 9.1.2.1 Condition Designators.

condition handler:
n.  a function that might be invoked by the act of signaling, that receives the condition being signaled as its only argument, and that is permitted to handle the condition or to decline. See Section 9.1.4.1 Signaling.

condition reporter:
n.  a function that describes how a condition is to be printed when the Lisp printer is invoked while *print-escape* is false. See Section 9.1.3 Printing Conditions.

conditional newline:
n.  a point in output where a newline might be inserted at the discretion of the pretty printer. There are four kinds of conditional newlines, called "linear-style," "fill-style," "miser-style," and "mandatory-style." See the function pprint-newline and Section 22.2.1.1 Dynamic Control of the Arrangement of Output.

conformance:
n.  a state achieved by proper and complete adherence to the requirements of this specification. See Section 1.5 Conformance.

conforming code:
n.  code that is all of part of a conforming program.

conforming implementation:
n.  an implementation, used to emphasize complete and correct adherance to all conformance criteria. A conforming implementation is capable of accepting a conforming program as input, preparing that program for execution, and executing the prepared program in accordance with this specification. An implementation which has been extended may still be a conforming implementation provided that no extension interferes with the correct function of any conforming program.

conforming processor:
n. ANSI  a conforming implementation.

conforming program:
n.  a program, used to emphasize the fact that the program depends for its correctness only upon documented aspects of Common Lisp, and can therefore be expected to run correctly in any conforming implementation.

congruent:
n.  conforming to the rules of lambda list congruency, as detailed in Section 7.6.4 Congruent Lambda-lists for all Methods of a Generic Function.

cons:
n.v.  1. n. a compound data object having two components called the car and the cdr. 2. v. to create such an object. 3. v. Idiom. to create any object, or to allocate storage.

constant:
n.  1. a constant form. 2. a constant variable. 3. a constant object. 4. a self-evaluating object.

constant form:
n.  any form for which evaluation always yields the same value, that neither affects nor is affected by the environment in which it is evaluated (except that it is permitted to refer to the names of constant variables defined in the environment), and that neither affects nor is affected by the state of any object except those objects that are otherwise inaccessible parts of objects created by the form itself. A car form in which the argument is a quote form is a constant form.

constant object:
n.  an object that is constrained (e.g., by its context in a program or by the source from which it was obtained) to be immutable. A literal object that has been processed by compile-file is a constant object.

constant variable:
n.  a variable, the value of which can never change; that is, a keyword1 or a named constant. The symbols t, nil, :direction, and most-positive-fixnum are constant variables.

constituent:
n., adj.  1. a. n. the syntax type of a character that is part of a token. For details, see Section 2.1.4.1 Constituent Characters. b. adj. (of a character) having the constituent1a syntax type2. c. n. a constituent1b character. 2. n. (of a composite stream) one of possibly several objects that collectively comprise the source or sink of that stream.

constituent trait:
n. (of a character) one of several classifications of a constituent character in a readtable. See Section 2.1.4.1 Constituent Characters.

constructed stream:
n.  a stream whose source or sink is a Lisp object. Note that since a stream is another Lisp object, composite streams are considered constructed streams. A string stream is a constructed stream.

contagion:
n.  a process whereby operations on objects of differing types (e.g., arithmetic on mixed types of numbers) produce a result whose type is controlled by the dominance of one argument's type over the types of the other arguments. See Section 12.1.1.2 Contagion in Numeric Operations.

continuable:
n. (of an error) an error that is correctable by the continue restart.

control form:
n.  1. a form that establishes one or more places to which control can be transferred. 2. a form that transfers control.

copy:
n.  1. (of a cons C) a fresh cons with the same car and cdr as C. 2. (of a list L) a fresh list with the same elements as L. (Only the list structure is fresh; the elements are the same.) See the function copy-list. 3. (of an association list A with elements Ai) a fresh list B with elements Bi, each of which is nil if Ai is nil, or else a copy of the cons Ai. See the function copy-alist. 4. (of a tree T) a fresh tree with the same leaves as T. See the function copy-tree. 5. (of a random state R) a fresh random state that, if used as an argument to to the function random would produce the same series of "random" values as R would produce. 6. (of a structure S) a fresh structure that has the same type as S, and that has slot values, each of which is the same as the corresponding slot value of S. (Note that since the difference between a cons, a list, and a tree is a matter of "view" or "intention," there can be no general-purpose function which, based solely on the type of an object, can determine which of these distinct meanings is intended. The distinction rests solely on the basis of the text description within this document. For example, phrases like "a copy of the given list" or "copy of the list x" imply the second definition.)

correctable:
adj. (of an error) 1. (by a restart other than abort that has been associated with the error) capable of being corrected by invoking that restart. The function cerror signals an error that is correctable by the continue restart. (Note that correctability is not a property of an error object, but rather a property of the dynamic environment that is in effect when the error is signaled. Specifically, the restart is "associated with" the error condition object. See Section 9.1.4.2.4 Associating a Restart with a Condition.) 2. (when no specific restart is mentioned) correctable1 by at least one restart. import signals a correctable error of type package-error if any of the imported symbols has the same name as some distinct symbol already accessible in the package.

current input base:
n. (in a dynamic environment) the radix that is the value of *read-base* in that environment, and that is the default radix employed by the Lisp reader and its related functions.

current logical block:
n.  the context of the innermost lexically enclosing use of pprint-logical-block.

current output base:
n. (in a dynamic environment) the radix that is the value of *print-base* in that environment, and that is the default radix employed by the Lisp printer and its related functions.

current package:
n. (in a dynamic environment) the package that is the value of *package* in that environment, and that is the default package employed by the Lisp reader and Lisp printer, and their related functions.

current pprint dispatch table:
n. (in a dynamic environment) the pprint dispatch table that is the value of *print-pprint-dispatch* in that environment, and that is the default pprint dispatch table employed by the pretty printer.

current random state:
n. (in a dynamic environment) the random state that is the value of *random-state* in that environment, and that is the default random state employed by random.

current readtable:
n. (in a dynamic environment) the readtable that is the value of *readtable* in that environment, and that affects the way in which expressions2 are parsed into objects by the Lisp reader.


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